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snoRNA (small nucleolar RNA) is a small RNA of 60-300 nucleotides in length, containing a family of nuclear RNAs present in all eukaryotic cells. snoRNAs are concentrated in the nucleolus, and most serve as guide RNA for post-transcriptional modification of ribosomal RNA and some spliceosomal RNAs. The post-transcriptional modification are important for the production of efficient and accurate ribosomes. And others are involved in nuclear lysis of the original rRNA transcript.

In most mammalian, snoRNAs are encoded within the introns of genes that produce 5’ terminal oligo pyrimidine (5’ TOP) RNAs. snoRNA is very conservative in structure, and it falls into two main categories which are involved in two different types of post-transcriptional modifications: the C/D-box snoRNA defining the target site for 2'-O-ribose methylation and the H/ACA-box snoRNA defining pseudo-uridined target site (Figure 1).

Figure 1: The two classes of snoRNA and their pathway of synthesis  in mammals (Gwyn T. Williams. 2012)Figure 1: The two classes of snoRNA and their pathway of synthesis in mammals (Gwyn T. Williams. 2012)

Because early studies found that the function of snoRNAs is relatively simple, located in the nucleolus and related to the processing modification of rRNA, it has not received much attention in the following period. Recent studies have suggested that snoRNAs act as a precursor to miRNAs, thereby regulating the translation of target mRNAs. sno-lncRNA is identified to be a new type of long non-coding RNA containing a complete snoRNA sequence, which is crucial for the stability and subcellular localization of sno-lncRNA and promotes the function of Pol I in transcriptional rRNA. In addition, more and more sequencing data shows that snoRNA has a general high expression trend in tumors and may play a key role in controlling cell fate and tumorigenesis. And some studies have shown that snoRNA is involved in the progression of the diseases.

As one of the global leading biotechnology companies, IntegrateRNA is specialized in providing comprehensive services and products including various types of RNA discovery, analysis, and related bioinformatics services to meet the needs and timelines of a wide range of genomics researchers. Tell us your project needs, we provide complete, innovative snoRNA solutions and comprehensive portfolio of snoRNA products to accelerate the achievement of your research goals. There is no doubt that IntegrateRNA will be your best partner to support your research. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact us.

References:

  1. Gwyn T. Williams and Farzin Farzaneh. Are snoRNAs and snoRNA host genes new players in cancer? Nature Reviews Cancer. 2012; 12(2):84–88.
  2. Xing YH. et al. SLERT Regulates DDX21 Rings Associated with Pol I Transcription. Cell. 2017; 169(4):664-678.
  3. Motoharu Ono. et al. Analysis of Human Small Nucleolar RNAs (snoRNA) and the Development of snoRNA Modulator of Gene Expression Vectors. Mol Biol Cell. 2010; 21(9): 1569–1584.
  4. Lestrade, L. & Weber, M. J. snoRNA‑LBME‑db, a comprehensive database of human H/ACA and C/D box snoRNAs. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006; 34:158–162.
  5. Dieci, G. et al. Eukaryotic snoRNAs: a paradigm for gene expression flexibility. Genomics. 2009; 94:83–88.
  6. Scott, M. S. & Ono, M. From snoRNA to miRNA: dual function regulatory non-coding RNAs. Biochimie. 2011; 93:1987–1992.
  7. Gee, H. E. et al. The small-nucleolar RNAs commonly used for microRNA normalization correlate with tumor pathology and prognosis. Br. J. Cancer. 2011; 104:1168–1177.
For research use only. Not intended for any clinical use.
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