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What is rRNA?

rRNA (ribosome RNA) is the most abundant, accounting for about 80% of total cellular RNA, and the major structural component of the ribosome (more than 55% of the ribosome mass).  In prokaryotes, the small 30S ribosomal subunit contains 16S rRNA. The large 50S subunit contains 5S and 23S rRNA. The 3' end of the 16S rRNA (in the ribosome) recognizes the sequence of the Shine-Dalgarno sequence at the 5' end of the mRNA. Bacterial 16S rRNA, 23S rRNA, and 5S rRNA genes are typically organized as co-transcriptional operons. In contrast, eukaryotes typically have many copies of the rRNA gene that are organized in tandem repeats. Sequence variations in rRNA have been observed within and between human individuals, and certain variants have been expressed in a tissue-specific manner in mice. Due to their special structure and transcriptional behavior, the rRNA gene cluster is often referred to as "rDNA." In most eukaryotes, the 18S rRNA is located in the small ribosomal subunit, and the large subunit contains three rRNA species (5S, 5.8S, and 28S in mammals, 25S rRNA in plants). In addition, mammalian cells have another two mitochondrial (12S and 16S) rRNA molecules.

Why study rRNA?

Ribosomal RNA contains many 2'-O-methylated nucleosides and pseudouridines, most modifications accumulate in functionally critical regions of rRNA, suggesting that they play an important role in translation. Some researchers believe that some human diseases are caused by the defects in the rRNA modification mechanism. Due to its characteristics, rRNA has been widely used in evolution, taxonomy, and medical research:

  • Species identification and classification — rRNA is one of the few gene products found in all cells. Therefore, rDNA is sequenced to identify the taxonomic group of the organism, calculate the relevant population, and estimate the species differentiation rate.
  • Drug target — rRNA is the target of many clinically relevant antibiotics: chloramphenicol, erythromycin, kasugamycin, micrococci, paromomycin, ricin, alpha-sarcosine, spectinomycin, streptomycin.
  • MicroRNA origination — rRNA has been shown to be the origin of species-specific microRNAs, such as human miR-663 and mouse miR-712. These miRNAs originate from the internal transcribed spacer of the rRNA.

As a global biotechnology company, IntegrateRNA, specializing in RNA research, is dedicated to providing products and services to a wide range of genomics researchers in the market, including various types of RNA discovery, analysis, and related bioinformatics services. Tell us your need, we offer you complete, innovative rRNA solutions and the highest quality rRNA products and service to help you solve the problems you encounter during your research.

For research use only. Not intended for any clinical use.
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